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The principle and application of laser cutting

Superwave Laser Technology Co.,Ltd | Updated: Jun 12, 2018

Laser cutting are emitted by the laser level of laser beam by 45 ° total reflection mirror into vertical laser beam down, after the lens focus, focus on the place together into a tiny spot, light irradiation on the materials, the material was quickly heated to evaporation temperature, evaporation hole formation, with the moving of the beam on the material, and comply with auxiliary gases (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) molten slag blown away, make continuous forming hole width is very narrow (such as 0. (about 1mm) cut the seam and finish cutting the material.


The principle of laser cutting
Laser cutting is the use of the focus of the high power density laser beam artifacts, cause the irradiation materials rapidly melting, evaporation and ablation or reach the ignition point, at the same time with the aid of high-speed airflow and beam coaxial blow molten material, so as to realize the workpiece cut open. Laser cutting is one of the hot cutting methods. The laser cutting principle is shown below.
Classification of laser cutting
1) vaporizing cutting
The workpiece is heated by high energy density laser beam. Vaporize in a short time, forming steam. A cut is made on the material. The heat of vaporization of materials is usually very large, so laser vaporization cutting requires high power and power density.
Laser vaporization cutting is mainly used for cutting extremely thin metal materials and non-metallic materials (such as paper, cloth, wood, plastic and rubber).
2) melting cutting
Laser fusion cutting with laser heating melt metal materials, injection of oxidizing gas nozzle (Ar, He, N, etc.), rely on the strong pressure of the gas to liquid metal, form the incision. The energy required is only 1/10 of the power required for the vaporized cutting.
Laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting non-oxidizing materials or active metals, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.
3) oxygen cutting
It USES laser as preheating heat source, oxygen and other active gases as cutting gas. On the one hand, the gas produced by the spray ACTS with metal cutting, causing oxidation reaction and releasing a large amount of oxidation heat. On the other hand, the molten oxide and melt are blown out from the reaction zone, and the cutting speed is much faster than that of laser vaporization cutting and melting cutting.
Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for oxidizing metal materials such as carbon steel, titanium steel and heat treated steel.
4) slicing and controlling fracture
Laser scribing is the use of high energy density of laser scanning on the surface of brittle material, make the material vaporized out a small slot, and then a certain pressure, brittle material will be split along the small slot. The lasers used for laser cutting are generally q-switched laser and CO2 laser.
Controlled fracture is the use of laser groove when the steep temperature distribution, in the brittle materials to generate local thermal stress, so that the material along the small groove break.
Laser cutting applications
Most laser cutting machines are controlled by nc programs or made into cutting robots. As a precision machining method, laser cutting can cut almost all materials, including two-dimensional cutting or three-dimensional cutting of thin metal plates.
In the field of automobile manufacture, the cutting technology of space curve such as car top window has been widely used. Volkswagen USES a laser with a power of 500W to cut complex body panels and curved parts. In the field of aerospace, with laser cutting processing of components for aerospace engines flame tube, titanium alloy thin wall casing, plane frame, titanium alloy skin, long wings girder, rear wing wall plate, the helicopter main rotor, the shuttle ceramic heat shield, etc.
Laser cutting and forming technology is also widely used in non-metallic materials. Such as silicon nitride, ceramics, quartz, etc. Flexible materials, such as cloth, paper, plastic board, rubber, etc.