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Laser welding principle-superwave laser welding machine

Superwave Laser Technology Co.,Ltd | Updated: Dec 19, 2017

Laser welding is a high intensity of laser radiation to the surface of metal, with a laser interaction with metal, metal absorption laser is converted into heat energy to make metal melt cooling crystallization after welding. FIG. 1 shows the evolution stage of melting process under different radiation power density. There are two mechanisms for laser welding:

First, heat conduction welding

When laser in material surface, part of the laser is reflected, part absorbed by material and convert light energy into heat energy and heating melting, material surface heat continue to the depths of the material in the form of heat conduction, the last two welding welding together.  

Second, laser deep fusion welding

When power density is larger when the laser beam to the surface of a material, material absorb light energy is converted into heat, melt materials are heated to boil, to produce a large number of metal vapor, under the reaction of steam exit surface, make the molten metal liquid to exclude, form, as a continuation of the laser irradiation, pit more deeply wear, when after laser irradiation stopped, pit surrounding liquid reflux, after cooling solidification at - the two welding welding.  

The two welding mechanisms are selected according to the actual material properties and welding needs, and different welding mechanisms are obtained by adjusting the welding process parameters of the laser. The basic difference between the two methods is that the former molten pool surface remains closed while the latter is pierced by the laser beam. The conduction welding is less disturbing to the system because the radiation of the laser beam does not penetrate the welded material, so the weld is not easily penetrated by the gas during the conduction welding process; When deep welding, the closed hole can lead to stoma. Conduction and deep penetration welding method can also be in the same transformation in the process of welding, by conduction way to change the way of holes depends on the peak of laser energy on workpiece density and laser pulse duration. The time dependence of laser pulse energy density can make laser welding during the interaction between laser and material by a welding way to another way, namely in the process of interaction of weld can be formed in the conduction mode first and then into a hole.