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Fiber Laser Welding techniques In CW Mode

Superwave Laser Technology Co.,Ltd | Updated: Jul 09, 2016

Today there are numerous welding techniques other than gas welding and arc welding for every special field. Because different materials call for different techniques. There are numerous techniques just for welding metals. Laser welding is the future for welding metal. Other conventional welding techniques like, for example, TIG(tungsten inert gas welding), MAG (metal active gas welding) or plasma welding do not reach the energy densities needed for a deep welding effect. 

The laser creates laser radiation and with it the energy, that is necessary for the welding process. This energy is lead by a deflection mirror and a focusing device, e. g. focusing mirror, to where is should have its effect, to the joint of the workpieces. The workpieces themselves are positioned and fixed in such a way in the workpiece seat, that the focused laser beam can be diverted exactly on the additional seam. The laser welding head moves along the joint over the workpiece. The enormous energy density of the laser beam in focus – about 106 W/cm2 – makes the material melt and vaporize. The pressure of the dissipating metal vapor can become so high, that a vapor channel forms in the material – the so-called "key hole".This key hole penetrates a few millimeter deep into the material. When the laser welding head moves over the workpiece, the keyhole moves with it under the laser welding head. The two casts flow into one another behind it. The joined and mixed material cools off and the cast solidifies to a narrow welding seam. The welding seam is usually protected from reaction with the air by a shield gas during the machining. Other gases, the work gases, can aid and control the welding process.

When welding with a laser, two different welding techniques are used: heat conduction welding and deep welding. When using heat conduction welding, the material is melted only on the surface. In this way, welding seams a few tenths of a millimeter deep are formed. This welding technique is useful with pulsed Nd:YAG laser, which is used for welding components for the electronics industry or for medical small parts.

When producing, for example, gear parts, profiles or thick walled tubes, very deep and narrow welding seams are required. In these cases, deep welding is done with the CO2 laser or fiber laser in CW mode. A special kind of deep welding is with filler metals, that are used when large gap widths and large sheet thicknesses are machined.

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